Coma symptoms and causes require swift action to preserve life and brain function. Usually, the doctors will order a battery of blood tests and a brain CT scan to try to see what is causing it so that correct treatment can begin.
An individual who is experiencing a coma can’t be awakened. And they don’t react to the encircling surroundings. They do not reply to pain, light, or sound in the usual way, and they don’t make voluntary actions.
Someone in a coma will also have very reduced basic reflexes like coughing and swallowing. Other than that, they may be able to breathe on their own, though some individuals need a machine to assist them to breathe.
Coma symptoms and causes
The main symptoms of a coma are unconsciousness. Other symptoms that commonly are:
- Closed eyes
- Irregular respiration
- No responses of limbs, apart from reflex movements
- No response to painful stimuli, apart from reflex movements
- Depressed brainstem reflexes, like pupils not responding to light
- Anyone who is with the person ought to try and bear in mind what occurred simply before the coma started. As a result of this info, it can help verify the underlying cause and provides a much better plan for what treatment to use.
Causes of a Coma
Some examples are:
- Drugs and alcohol. Overdosing on drugs or alcohol.
- Tumors. Tumors in the brain or brainstem can cause a coma.
- Infection. Infections of the central nervous system, like meningitis or encephalitis.
- Traumatic brain injuries. Traumatic brain injuries, typically caused by traffic collisions or acts of violence, are common causes of comas.
- Stroke. Reduced or interrupted blood supply to the brain (stroke), which can be caused by blocked arteries or a burst blood vessel.
- Diabetes. In individuals with diabetes, blood sugar levels that become too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) can cause a coma.
- Oxygen deprivation. Oxygen is important for brain function. Cardiac arrest causes an unexpected cut off of blood flow and oxygen to the brain, known as hypoxia or anoxia. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), survivors of cardiac arrest are usually in comas. Oxygen deprivation may occur with drowning or choking.
- Toxins. Substances that are commonly found in the body can accumulate to toxic levels if the body fails to get rid of them properly. As an example, ammonia as a result of liver disease, carbon dioxide from a severe asthma attack. Or urea from kidney failure can accumulate to toxic levels in the body. Drugs and alcohol in massive quantities may disrupt nerve cell functioning in the brain.
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